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Shelley revised the novel herself for a third publication in The nineteenth century saw an increasing awareness of criminality. The text best illustrates my argument, and page numbers thus refer to that edition. Unless otherwise noted, the wording in the two previous texts is identical. Closer examination of the manuscripts also reveals some surprisingly non-linear developments due to P.
She reverted to the original wording in the third edition. The poet in this case obscured the specifically criminological stance of the text. In the cases I do not judge it to be pertinent, the reader can refer to the notes, where all variations are recorded. Returning to the close reading, Justine herself pushes criminal capability outside of human reach and into the realm of the supernatural.
Nevertheless, neither confession nor irrefutable evidence enables him to incriminate the creature. Therefore, a strong belief in the incapacity of any human being to kill such a sweet child tints, and strengthens, his assurance. Furthermore, Victor firmly considers criminality, or at least homicide, to emerge from a state of inhumanity, to be the prerogative of beings other than human.
This belief contrasts sharply with the prevalent discourse in eighteenth-century England, according to which universal human depravity caused crime.
Criminal biographies, for instance, emphasized common traits between murderers and the rest of the population, as Lincoln B. Faller describes in his sociopoetical analysis of British criminal biographies. Samuel Johnson. The seventeenth-century popular text was therefore still common currency at the beginning of the nineteenth century. No one was safe, for depravity lied at the core of every human being. Nevertheless, some individuals did break the law and others did not. What could explain this discrepancy?
Ultimately, criminals were neither more nor less depraved than any other individual, but by giving way to sin, they opened their hearts, wills, and minds to illegal mischief.
The assumption at the heart of this aetiology — universal human depravity — did not rule all minds. As mentioned previously, philosophers of the Enlightenment, most notably Rousseau, challenged such a pessimistic view of humanity.
Nevertheless, stating that humans are born good-natured does not resolve the interrogation about criminality. How do thinkers make sense of criminality in this new configuration? Explanations in which the elite could find comfort arise with the search for homo criminalis, a delimited group of individuals who indulge in crime and, in more radical theories, must be eradicated.
Cesare Lombroso best embodies the latter Italian school, which regards criminals not as a distinct class, but as a degenerated and atavistic race, the product of reappearing primitive genes. In contrast with these popular texts and the developing criminological theories, Frankenstein however contains no single rationalization. The novel provides not one but two discrete aetiologies to replace the religious-laden attempts at explaining crime in the eighteenth century.
Indeed, two characters voice their own views on criminality: the creature and Frankenstein, the criminal and its creator. The second sentence was struck out and P. He was the murderer! I could not doubt it. It is in this revised state that the passage is often quoted. It offers a crucial key in uncovering the thought process that led Frankenstein to identify the creature as the criminal. An important bias nonetheless strengthens the process. Commenting on the above passage from the novel, Scott J.
I thus believe more is at work than creative imagination alone. Preconceptions regarding appearances play an undeniable role in the perception of criminals.
Again, P. Though a pivotal moment, this encounter is not the first instance of prejudice the maker contrives against his creation.
God, Who is perfect, would not allow discrepancy between moral and corporeal beauty. Emphasizing physicality as in earlier passages, P. It can nevertheless be reasonably assumed that the young couple knew the Lavatarian principles through their connection with the radical circle of London-based writers.
The debate, as the literary critic sketches it out, revolves around the true identity of the monstrous parent: democracy or aristocracy.
Yet, he is disposed to hear its story, out of a curiosity blended with compassion, hoping to learn whether his suspicions were founded or not. In contrast, I argue that psychological readings of criminality can equally redistribute blame onto the entire social body or essentialize.
Ultimately, Frankenstein forges his interpretation of the criminal in relation to its actions and appearance, a rather simplistic approach denying it any psychological development and, consequently, evading his own responsibility concerning its evil turn. The creature also retraces the cause of its rejection to its appearance.
The fair copy for this passage is missing, which leaves the attribution of this change open to speculation. Unfortunately, the three younger cottagers return, interrupt the conversation, and drive the visitor away.
The intervention of a prejudiced individual thwarted its initial experiment to enter society by approaching one that was not. Afterwards, the creature conceives of a new arrangement upon seeing a child wandering in the woods.
Retrospectively, its two experiments to incorporate human society end in a frustration causing criminal acts.
The unfortunate being claims it should then be content and leave the sight of human eyes forever. Its feelings of revenge have died out, leaving only pity regarding Victor and abhorrence towards itself.
Injured both physically and emotionally by society, the desperate being engages in a vendetta against its maker, responsible, initially, of having brought it into an inhospitable world, but chiefly, of having abandoned it.
This Encourage speculation. Do not confirm or reject huge and ugly monster needs love, but nobody cares suggestions at this stage. Encourage students to notice William. They shouted, screamed, ran away, or threw stones at him. While Reading 2 How.
He cut firewood for them. Encourage students to speculate teaching Sophie. He wanted him to understand that he was guesses at this stage. The answers are: The father of the girl that the monster 2 Because Victor Frankenstein who was on the second rescued from the river. The monster. Open answers. Encourage speculation, and ask for 4 Yes. In fact. Encourage speculation. These antonyms are not precise. Kill us? Why do you think that?
But if you say we must go. Leave our home! Why should we do 1 Victor Frankenstein to the monster. He built his laboratory and a tall mast above it. My dear Elizabeth. After Reading create destroy evil good. I would never 5 Victor to the dead Henry Clerval. I thought he was just an unhappy. Then he built a huge woman from Open answers. He has broken his 3 To make Victor feel as much pain and misery as he.
But one night he saw my face in the moonlight out- side the window. But he was going to kill us. With a wife. My boy. I know just how to do it.