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An element of Norse influence that persists in all English varieties today is the group of pronouns beginning with th- they, them, their which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- hie, him, hera. The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman.
Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the main influence of Norman was the introduction of a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains. The distinction between nominative and accusative cases was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to indicating possession.
The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms,  and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible. By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
Early Modern English Main article: Early Modern English Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shift , showing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: and u: breaking into diphthongs and the lower vowels each shifting their pronunciation up one level The next period in the history of English was Early Modern English — Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift — , inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.
It was a chain shift , meaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Mid and open vowels were raised , and close vowels were broken into diphthongs. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today.
The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages. Around , the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents , and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard , developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands. In , William Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English.
Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English. Spread of Modern English By the late 18th century, the British Empire had spread English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language.
English also facilitated worldwide international communication. English was adopted in parts of North America, parts of Africa, Australasia, and many other regions. When they obtained political independence, some of the newly independent nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political and other difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
In Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced standard spellings of words and usage norms.
In , Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language to try to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent of the British standard. Just for added fun, read the text with some emotion. If you are the landlord, express a dominating tone when speaking. You decide! Chat with Friends Online What better way to learn to speak in English than learning with friends?
Instead of chatting with them through your keyboard, why not just do a voice or video call instead? This way, you can practice speaking in English in a conversational way. This will be good practice for you both.
One of the most useful video and voice chat apps is Skype. After downloading the free software, sign up for an account and start adding your friends to your contacts. Another app you can use is Viber. Install the application, and then you can start talking to your friends in your phonebook.
Both apps can be used on desktop and mobile. You call a friend like how you usually make a call on your mobile phone. But for the sake of learning to speak in English, pretend you have one. Most big, international companies will have English-speaking representatives. Think of it as a free English lesson. One way to do this is to ask questions about their products. Pretend that you bought a product, and tell them your problem with it.
You might say: Hi, I recently bought your anti-aging skin cream.
I like it, but I find it too oily for my skin, would you recommend anything else? Later, you can continue asking about the other products they have, and you can continue to share what products you are looking for. From there, you have already started a conversation with the customer support representative.
To record yourself, you can use your smartphone, tablet or even your laptop. Now, recording your own voice is just the first step.
Keep recording your English speaking sessions at home until you perfect the piece you are reading. After that, you can move on to a different piece and also challenge yourself with more advanced vocabulary.
We suggest these classic American movies that you can watch later on if you have nothing else in mind. A transcript is the entire script of a movie, so you can follow the dialogues from there. You can talk about whatever you want: movie reviews, share stories, give your opinion, etc. After you record them, you can upload it to your blog and let other people hear what you have to say.
If you have native English speaking friends, ask them for constructive feedback. Upload them to your blog and publish the post.
Any combination of these 10 ideas will guarantee an entertaining time with results. So be positive and believe in yourself.